RNZAF personnel were also posted to HQ V Force and worked primarily in Saigon in a range of liaison duties. In line with reductions in American and Australian strength in Vietnam, New Zealand began the gradual withdrawal of its combat forces as the training teams were arriving. The Vietnam experience was also important as a test of the country's relationship with the United States. New Zealand's initial response was carefully considered and characterised by Prime Minister Keith Holyoake's cautiousness towards the entire Vietnam question. More than 3000 New Zealand military and civilian personnel served in Vietnam between 1963 and 1975. These allowed people in and from New Zealand to view and experience the realities of international events and movements such as anti-Vietnam War protests, the new counter-culture in the United States and protests organized by the anti-apartheid movement. For a growing number of New Zealanders, their country's participation in the conflict triggered a re-examination of its foreign policy and identity. The doctors and nurses who worked there were all volunteers from New Zealand hospitals. The book New Zealand's Vietnam War by Ian McGibbon, published in 2010, completed the project of official war histories begun in 1945 and focuses on what New Zealand did in south Vietnam.. The MoU included a trust to support veterans’ children, a national reunion and official ‘welcome home’ parade named Tribute 08, and a formal apology for successive governments’ failure to address veterans’ concerns. Click here for a full list of resources related to New Zealand's Vietnam War. Comments will be reviewed prior to posting. From 1966, New Zealand units were integrated within the 1st Australian Task Force at Nui Dat in Phuoc Tuy province. All were gone by the end of 1971. All who served were regulars, or personnel who enlisted in the Regular Force in order to join V Force. [32][33], At the end of April 1970, a new 2 RAR from Australia and new Victor Company from Singapore arrived and on 15 May, Whisky 3 (now six months into their tour) and Victor 5 merged with 2 RAR to became for the second time 2 RAR/NZ (ANZAC). This detachment stayed in South Vietnam until February 1971. [47], 161 Battery RNZA was awarded the United States Meritorious Unit Commendation for their service in South Vietnam while serving under the U.S 173rd Airborne Brigade. In July 1967 President Lyndon B. Johnson sent two of his principal advisers, Clark Clifford and Gen. Maxwell Taylor, to Australia and New Zealand with an urgent mission. Participation in the Vietnam War fractured what had largely been a foreign policy consensus between the two major political parties, National and Labour. [56][57], Additionally, Lieutenant Colonel Kenneth Charles Fenton RNZE, was administratively in charge of all New Zealand forces in Vietnam, at the New Zealand Headquarters in Saigon (V Force HQ) from 25 July 1968 to 30 July 1970. Over 20 RNZAF personnel served with a variety of U.S Air Force units as Forward Air Controllers, and a number of pilots and crew from No. From protest about war – be it the New Zealand Wars, the Great War, the Vietnam War or the invasion of Iraq – to trade union action, protests against aparthei… The conflict and the anti-war movement ushered in a new era of debate about New Zealand's place in the world. New Zealand joined its major allies in recognising the French-sponsored Bao Dai regime in 1950, but remained unsure about the strength and legitimacy of the non-communist forces in Vietnam. Of the 37 on the list, 20 of those were RNZAF personnel whom served as attachments to various units of the United States Air Force, as Forward air controllers. [53][54][55] Two RNZE sappers were killed while serving with the RNZIR infantry companies. New Zealand certainly saw the fighting in Cold War terms. Tell me more... 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It includes controversies such as incidents of "friendly fire", allegations of atrocities, grievances over Agent Orange, and Maori participation in V Force. New Zealand protests were similar to those in the United States – criticising the policies of the United States government and challenging seriously for the first time New Zealand's alliance-based security, calling for a more 'independent' foreign policy which was not submissive to that of the United States and denying that communism posed any real threat to New Zealand. New Zealand entered the war in 1965 to support the United States and its allies. Both companies served in the 1st Australian Task Force in Nui Dat, Phuoc Tuy Province. Even so, there was a vocal and well-organised anti-war movement in New Zealand. This conflict was also the first in which New Zealand did not fight alongside the United Kingdom, instead following the loyalties of the ANZUS Pact. It stressed that it was fulfilling treaty obligations and upholding the principles of collective security that had been so important to New Zealand since the Second World War. Although under operational command of the Australian SAS Squadron Commander when deployed into the field on operations, 4 Tp NZSAS was an independent command and self-sufficient. New Zealand society was changed politically as a direct consequence of the anti-Vietnam War movement through its transformation of the Labour Party and change in foreign policy. Made up of members from various New Zealand branches of service including two members from RNZN, the team helped train Khmer National Armed Forces (FANK) personnel in weapons and tactics and first aid. Thousands rallied against the war in notable public actions between 1967 and 1971. Extensive protest over the police handling of the investigation. While National continues to support a stronger alliance with the United States, the anti-war protests convince the Labour government that a new and more independent New Zealand foreign policy is needed. In recent years, there has been greater official sensitivity to these concerns. Two civilians serving with the surgical and Red Cross teams also lost their lives. From 1967, Royal New Zealand Air Force (RNZAF) pilots flew helicopters with 9 Squadron Royal Australian Air Force, while others operated as forward air controllers with the United States Air Force. By then, a total of 3,890 New Zealand military personnel, all volunteers, had served in Vietnam from June 1964 to December 1972. [88] New Zealand writer and historian, Deborah Challinor, includes a new chapter in her second edition release of Grey Ghosts: New Zealand Vietnam Veterans Talk About Their War that discusses the handling of the New Zealand Vietnam Veterans' claims, including the Reeves, McLeod and Health Committee reports, and the reconciliation/welcome parade on Queen's Birthday Weekend, 2008, also known as 'Tribute 08'. Surgical and medical support. In 1967, it sent two infantry companies – V and W – from the 1st Battalion, Royal New Zealand Infantry Regiment in Malaysia, along with a tri-service medical team – 1st New Zealand Services Medical Team. Two more RNZAF pilots joined No. Ian McGibbon - The Vietnam War: NZ's Story. Protests were initially peaceful and included sit-ins or teach-ins or marches, but they eventually erupted into violence. New Zealand troops are quickly withdrawn without much controversy after the Labour Party's return to office in 1972. The government wanted to maintain solidarity with the United States, but was unsure about the likely outcome of external military intervention in Vietnam. The New Zealand Army Detachment (NEWZAD) engineers were replaced by the Battery in July 1965, which consisted of nine officers and 101 other ranks and four 105 mm L5 pack howitzers (later increased to six, and in 1967 replaced with 105 mm M2A2 Howitzers). Up until then, New Zealand’s contribution to the conflict had been restricted to humanitarian aid and development assistance: a civilian surgical team treating civilian casualties of war in Qui Nhon (1963-1975) and a 25-strong non-combatant engineer unit (NEWZAD) working on reconstruction projects in Binh Duong province (1964-1965). Commercial re-use may be allowed on request. Despite New Zealand’s modest military involvement in the Vietnam War, the conflict created enormous political and public debate at home about New Zealand’s foreign policy and place in the world. The 2IC was filled by RNZIR Officer, Major Robert Ian Thorpe.[17][18]. Large-scale actions such as the 1966 Battle of Long Tan were uncommon. American pressure continued for New Zealand to contribute military assistance,[6] as the United States would be deploying combat units (as opposed to merely advisors) itself soon, as would Australia. 161 Battery was initially under command of the United States Army's 173rd Airborne Brigade for the first 12 months based at Bien Hoa near Saigon. One focus of protest was the Vietnam War. From 1960, insurgents from the communist-dominated National Liberation Front – dubbed ‘Viet Cong’ in the south – fought a guerrilla campaign against a South Vietnamese regime that was now led by Ngo Dinh Diem. Keith Holyoake and US President Lyndon B. Johnson. New Zealand’s military strength in Vietnam reached a peak of 548 in 1968. Hereafter the tour of duty for all RNZIR companies was extended to twelve months. [16], Following agreement between the Australian and New Zealand Governments in late February 1968, V2 Company and W Company and A, B, and C Companies of 2RAR were amalgamated to become 2RAR/NZ (ANZAC) Battalion (2RAR/NZ) from 1 March 1968. Key battles. The Royal New Zealand Navy did not make a sea contribution to New Zealand's military involvement in the Vietnam War, but otherwise contributed personnel beginning in April 1967 with RNZN medical members being part of the tri-service New Zealand Services Medical Team (NZSMT.) 1969: Fire crackers thrown at an election meeting addressed by the Prime Minister with 30 arrests. To offset Whisky 3's withdrawal, in January 1971 the New Zealand government committed the 1st New Zealand Army Training Team (1 NZATTV) to Vietnam. The protest movement is backed by Norman Kirk's Labour government which supports a prompt withdrawal of New Zealand troops. All New Zealand troops in Vietnam were volunteer regular personnel, so the protest movement did not have an anti-conscription edge, as it did in Australia and the United States. It also upheld New Zealand's national interests of countering communism in South-East Asia. Some served as intelligence officers with 1ATF. In 1984, Agent Orange manufacturers paid New Zealand, Australian and Canadian veterans in an out-of-court settlement, and in 2004 Prime Minister Helen Clark's government apologised to Vietnam War veterans who were exposed to Agent Orange or other toxic defoliants, following a health select committee's inquiry into the use of Agent Orange on New Zealand servicemen and its effects. To that extent, the Holyoake government attained the central objective of its Vietnam policy: the alliance with the United States remained intact at the end of the war. They also triggered a backlash. Anti-war slogans w… It makes up part of a broader study into the causes, events and consequences of the Vietnam War. New Zealand casualties during the Vietnam War were: RNZE: 2, RNZA: 5, RNZIR: 27, RNZAF: 1, NZSAS: 1, RNZAMC: 1 (for a total of 37) and 187 wounded. New techniques. In 1967 two RNZAF pilots were seconded to the Royal Australian Air Force's No. [60] The initial NEWZAD deployment included a few RNZEME personnel, as did the latter NZATTV. During the first Indo-China War (1946-1954) between the communist-dominated Viet Minh and France, New Zealand accepted the British-American view that Vietnam was a crucial point on the front line against communist expansion in Asia. In December a second Victor Company was deployed to Vietnam and was joined by Whisky Company in December, both from the 1st Battalion. Numbering 25 men from different branches of service of the New Zealand Army, including RNZIR, RNZA, RNZE, RNZEME, RNZAMC, RNZAC, RNZSigs, RNZASC, and RNZAOC, it assisted the United States Army Training Team in Chi Lang. This may have been due to protests in New Zealand. The Vietnam War. In 2005, the New Zealand government confirmed that it supplied Agent Orange chemicals to the United States military during the conflict. Following the French withdrawal and the Geneva conference’s ‘temporary’ division of Vietnam at the 17th Parallel, it became a founding member of the South-East Asia Treaty Organisation (SEATO), a regional alliance against the spread of communism sponsored by the British and (especially) the Americans. There has been much resentment within their ranks at perceived official and public indifference to the physical and psychological problems experienced by so many veterans due to exposure to Agent Orange and post-traumatic stress disorder. [12] One RNZAF member of the NZSMT, Sgt Gordon Watt, was killed by a booby trap in 1970.[13]. Not until June 1964 did twenty-five Army engineers arrive in South Vietnam. Holyoake justified New Zealand's lack of assistance by pointing to its military contribution to the Indonesia-Malaysian Confrontation, but eventually the government decided to contribute. 1975 - The first reunion of New Zealand Vietnam veterans was held. As that conflict escalated, the protests grew in strength, and some turned violent. Thirty-seven men died while on active service and 187 were wounded. Subsequently, a few served with the second of the two New Zealand training teams deployed to Vietnam after combat troops withdrew in 1971. [93][94], New Zealand artillerymen carry out a fire mission in South Vietnam, New Zealand Army Detachment Vietnam (NEWZAD), New Zealand Services Medical Team (NZSMT), Royal New Zealand Infantry Regiment (RNZIR), Corps of Royal New Zealand Engineers (RNZE), Royal New Zealand Electrical and Mechanical Engineers (RNZEME), Royal New Zealand Army Ordnance Corps (RNZAOC), Royal New Zealand Army Medical Corps (RNZAMC), Royal New Zealand Army Service Corps (RNZASC), Royal New Zealand Corps of Signals (RNZSigs), New Zealand Army Training Team Vietnam (1 NZATTV & 2 NZATTV), New Zealand Attachments to United States Army, Air Force and Navy, New Zealand Attachments to Australian Army, Air Force, and Navy. [35], Whisky 3 Company was withdrawn without replacement in November 1970. 1969: Flour bombs, paint and eggs thrown in protest over a visit of a high-ranking United States politician. 40 Squadron RNZAF providing troop transport for New Zealand, Australian and some American troops, and No. It would be the last New Zealand Government agency to withdraw from Vietnam. Like their counterparts overseas, local protestors espoused moral objections to New Zealand’s participation in the Vietnam War, including opposition to the weapons and tactics being engaged, and their impact on innocent civilians. 1971: Protests in Dunedin reach the National Party's convention in the centre of the city, resulting in scuffles with police and two arrests. The New Zealand headquarters established in Saigon in 1964 was renamed "Headquarters Vietnam Force" (HQ V Force) on 2 July 1965. The first Victor Company served a 6-month tour of duty. 161 Bty served under command of the U.S 173rd Airborne Brigade from 1965–1966. Most operations in Phuoc Tuy were regular patrols or cordon and search operations. In line with reductions in American and Australian strength in Vietnam, New Zealand began the gradual withdrawal of its combat forces as the training teams were arriving. 1831901 Several Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) units underwent training under both New Zealand companies at various times. Prime Minister Holyoake said in 1971 that New Zealand's combat forces would be withdrawn by "about the end of this year," and they were – Whiskey Three Company went in November 1970, the SAS Troop and 161 Battery followed in February and May 1971 respectively, and Victor Six Company and the tri-service medical team left with the 1st Au… [13], In November 1968, New Zealand's contribution to the 1st Australian Task Force was increased by the deployment of 4 Troop, New Zealand Special Air Service, comprising an officer and 25 other ranks. Some of these attachments were planned as part of officers' career planning by Defence Headquarters; others were opportunity attachments through contact with Allied commanders at many levels. They represented growing discontent within a portion of the Australian population to the government’s commitment to the Vietnam War in general and conscription in particular. One company from 4 RAR, remained behind until 12 March 1972 in order to provide security to rear details. The anti-war movement grew during the closing stages of the Vietnam War. Protests against the Vietnam War did not start when America declared her open involvement in the war in 1964.America rallied to the call of the commander-in-chief and after the Gulf of Tonkin incident it became very apparent that few would raise protests against the decision to militarily support South Vietnam. These RNZE Detachments helped set up the NZ artillery battery when it moved to Nui Dat in September 1966 and again for Victor One Company RNZIR from early November to December 1967. In 2014 it was revised by Gareth Phipps. [49], Each time New Zealand military contribution to South Vietnam increased, a work party of the Corps of Royal New Zealand Engineers was sent to assist in preparing the site for the new arrivals. In 1963 Prime Minister Keith Holyoake agreed to send non-combatant troops into the Vietnam War. [80], In 2019 the Australian government awarded the Australian Unit Citation for Gallantry to all members of 161 Battery for their part in the Battle of Coral-Balmoral. Anti-war protesters disrupted a civic reception in Auckland for New Zealand soldiers returning from the Vietnam War. After combat troop withdrawals in 1971 several RNZAMC personnel were part of the NZAATV teams. From 1961, New Zealand came under pressure from the United States of America to contribute military and economic assistance to South Vietnam, but refused. The team worked for civilians at the Binh Dinh Province Hospital, in Qui Nhon, an overcrowded, and dirty facility almost completely lacking equipment and bedding. The Royal New Zealand Army Ordnance Corps did not contribute a standalone unit to Vietnam but provided individuals to serve in various Australian and New Zealand units. 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